【1】C. located 后面outside the walls of a city or village表示位置 只有located 可以后接地址,表示坐落在……地方

【2】A privately 此处副词修饰前面的fund, 带入只有privately 私下资助更为合理

【3】 D. combination 空后面接了of the Persian word “karvan”和and seray, a palace or enclosed building 表示是这两个词的结合体词为combination,

【4】C. describe 根据上一句对与词Caravanserais的解释,这一句也是表示同义方向的内容,用来解释The term caravan,这里只有描述这个词可以表达词义。

【5】C. such as groups of people 是前面的大范畴的名词短语,而空后面merchants, travellers or pilgrims 为小范畴的内容,所以需要表示列举关系,只有such as 复合语义。

【6】A. construction 根据第一段第一句表示Caravanserais …… were built 可以看到同义句意 the construction of the Caravanserais。

【7】B. faced 前一句讲到 safe place ,后面Travellers …… possibility of being attacked,这里需要一个动词搭配,带入可知只有旅行者面临被袭击的可能性。

【8】B. subjected 根据and 的前后语义一致原则,前面提到将面临袭击,后面也要接贬义色彩的内容,根据搭配 be subjected to 表示 遭受不好的东西 与前面语义色彩一直。

【9】A. so that 前面 提到Caravanserais 被有计划的放置,后面接的是they could be reached in a day’s travel time. 可以看出前后为因果关系,只有so that 后接结果。

【10】D. meeting Caravanserais 被当作 an informal非正式的 …… point地点,前面讲到人们在旅行日到达这里,所以这里只能是meeting point 见面的地点。

【11】D. As a result 前后提到Caravanserais served as an informal meeting point( Caravanserais被当作一个非正式会面的点),空格后接those structures became important centers(这些地方被当作重要的中心),可以得出前后为因果关系,只有as a result,可以满足。

【12】C. exchange and 前后词义相近,与interaction”互动;交往”词义相近的是exchange “交换;交流”。

【13】C. as well as 文中 独立主格中with travelers sharing their cultures, ideas and beliefs, () talking knowledge with them 可以看出sharing cultures,ideas and beliefs 和后面talking knowledge with them 为并列关系,只有 as well as 符合正确答案。

【14】B. influencing 前面提到sharing their cultures, ideas and beliefs, as well as talking knowledge with them, 动作 the development of several civilizations. 带入只有influence符合语义。

【15】A. aided 前面讲到Caravanserais were also an important marketplace for commodities表示一个褒义的色彩,而and 后内容需要保持一致,只有aided 符合语义色彩。

【16】B. Indeed 前一句讲的是重要市场,后面句子it was frequently the first stop merchants looking to sell their wares 也表示售卖商品,语义一致,只有indeed符合语义。

【17】D. stock up on and 前面讲到商人卖货,后面空格又接了supplies供给只有 stock up on 储存符合文义。

【18】B. predicted 空格后提到round 120000 to 15000 caravanserais were built,是一个预估的事情,所以只能选择predicted.

【19】D. although 前后语义完全相反,前后讲remain 后面讲ruins,所以只能选择although。

【20】A. ruins 前面提到…… remain today与之在同义语域的只有 in ruins “毁灭,消失”。

Text 1
21. In the first paragraph, the weather in Texas is mentioned to
A. Forecast a policy shift in Texas school
B. Stress the consequences of climate change
C. Indicate the atmosphere at the board meeting
D. Draw the public’s attention to energy shortages
【21】C. Indicate the atmosphere at the board meeting 解析:该题为例证题,问在第一段得克萨斯州的天气被提及为了说明什么。文章开头提到得克萨斯州天气变冷最近成为了热议话题,但是州教育董事会的会议热度正高 (but the temperature will be high at the State Board of Education meeting),因此这里提到得克萨斯州天气是为了来反衬州教育董事会对于天气变化教育讨论的热度。故选C。

22. what does Quinn think of Hardy?
A. She exaggerates the existing panic.
B. She denies the value of scientific work.
C. She shows no concern for pre-teens.
D. She expressed self-contradictory view.
【22】B. She denies the value of scientific work. 解析:该题为细节题,根据题干中的Quinn和Hardy定位到第三段。这里提到:大多数科学家和专家强烈反对哈代的观点。Quinn说:“他们随意地将学者和科学家的职业工作视为另一种被误导的观点。”(They casually dismiss the career work of scholars and scientists as just another misguided opinion.)。因此证明Quinn认为Hardy否定科学研究的价值。故选B。

23. The study in paragraph 5 shows that
A. Climate education is insufficient at the states public schools.
B. Policymakers have little drive for science education.
C. Texas is reluctant to rewrite its science textbook.
D. Environmental teaching in some states lacks supervision.
【23】A. Climate education is insufficient at the states public schools. 解析:该题为细节题。根据题干定位到第五段,里面提到由科学家和教师组成的非营利组织——美国国家科学教育中心去年进行了一项研究,研究了全美州立公立学校在科学课上如何应对气候变化,结果给美国只有一半的州给出了B+或更高的评分。(looking at how state public schools across the country address climate change in science classes, gave barely half of US states a grade B+ or higher)。由此可知有另一半的州对气候变化教育的评价不高,通过打分表示不满,所以显示州立公立学校中的气候教育不足。故选A。

24. According to Branch, state-level science standards in the US
A. Call for regular revision.
B. Require urgent application.
C. Have limited influence.
D. Cater to local needs.
【24】C. Have limited influence. 解析:该题为细节题。根据题干中的Branch和state-level science standards 定位到第六段。里面提到:在一个将决策权下放给地方学校董事会的国家,制定州级科学标准只是一个有限的基准。(only one limited benchmark in a country).limited benchmark对应选项当中的limited influence,由此证明州科学标准影响有限。故选C。

25. It is implied in the last paragraph that climate change teaching in some schools
A. Agree to major public demands.
B. Reflects teachers personal biases.
C. May misrepresent the energy sector.
D. Can be swayed by external forces.
【25】D. Can be swayed by external forces. 解析:该题为细节题。根据题干信息定位到最后一段。最后一句话提及其中包括由自由主义智库和能源行业协会赞助的教材。(they include materials sponsored by libertarian think-tanks and energy industry associations.),因此证明气候变化教育会受到外部力量的支配。故选D。

Text 2
26. Which of the following is true of New England?
A. Its housing supply is at a very low level.
B. Its communities are in need of funding.
C. Its rental vacancy rate is going up slowly.
D. Its home prices are under strict control.
【26】A Its housing supply is at a very low level 解析:该题为事实细节题,问关于新英格兰哪点是正确的,文中提到:随着房价创纪录的高和历史性的低库存(with record-high home prices and historically low inventory)。所以Its housing supply is at a very low level住房供应处于非常低的水平以及historically low invento

27. The bill mentioned in Paragraph 2 was intended to
A. curb short-term rental speculation.
B. ensure the supply of cheap housing.
C. punish illegal dealings in housing.
D. allow a free short-term rental market.
【27】D allow a free short-term rental market 解析:该题为细节题,问第2段提到的法案旨在,文中提到:法案将城镇制定限制短期租赁的立法成为非法。(a bill that would’ve made it illegal for towns to create legislation restricting short-term rentals)。所以该法案不希望限制短期租赁,故选D。

28. Compared with Castle, Taylor is more likely to support
A. further investment in local tourism.
B. an increase in affordable housing.
C. strict management of real estate agents.
D. a favorable policy for short-term workers.
【28】B an increase in affordable housing 解析:该题为细节题,与Castle相比,Taylor更有可能支持,文中提到:没有足够的可负担住房,泰勒说:“雇主很难吸引员工,工人也很难找到住处。”(Without enough affordable housing ..., “employers are having a hard time attracting employees, and workers are having a hard time finding a place to live,’’ Taylor said)。所以Taylor认为需要增加可负担住房,故选B。

29. What does Horn emphasize in Paragraph 5?
A. The urgency to upgrade short-term rental facilities.
B. The efficient operation of the local housing market.
C. The necessity to stop developers from evading taxes.
D. The proper procedures for renting out spare houses.
【29】C The necessity to stop developers from evading taxes 解析:该题为细节题,在第5段中Horn强调了什么,文中提到:霍恩说:“我认为问题是,一个开发商如果真的在建造酒店,却把它伪装成不是酒店,难道不应该像酒店一样受到对待、征税和监管吗?”(“I think the question is, shouldn’t a developer who’s really building a hotel, but disguising it as not a hotel, be treated and taxed and regulated like a hotel?’’ Horn said.)所以Horn认为有必要阻止开发商为了避税和避开监管而在建造酒店的过程中伪装成不是酒店,故选C。

30. Horn holds that imposing registration requirements is
A. an irrational decision.
B. an unnecessary measure.
C. an unfeasible proposal.
D. an inadequate solution.
【30】D an inadequate solution 解析:该题为细节题,Horn认为强制执行登记要求是,文中提到:霍恩表示,类似的登记要求可能会让其他陷入困境的城市和城镇受益。然而,解决这个问题的唯一途径是创造更多的住房。(Horn said similar registration requirements could benefit other struggling cities and towns. The only way to solve the issue, however, is by creating more housing.)说明Horn认为类似的登记要求其实并不是一个合适的解决方案,故选D。

Text 3
31. The author mentions two books in paragraph to present
A. An ongoing conflict
B. An intellectual concept
C. A prevailing sentiment
D. A literary phenomenon
【31】A. An ongoing conflict 解析:该题为例证题。题干问作者提及两本书的目的是什么。例证题论据出现在开头,论点应该往后找,下一句话提到这两本书都将于下周由企鹅兰登书屋出版,该公司目前正与水石书店发生对峙,(Both of these books are published next week by Penguin Random House, a company currently involved in a stand-off with Waterstones.),因此证明目前出版社和书店正在发生冲突。故选A。

32. why did Waterstones shops retire PRH books to their relevant sections?
A. To make them easily noticeable
B. To comply with PRH’s requirement
C. To respond to PRH’s business move
D. To arrange them in systematic way
【32】C. To respond to PRH’s business move 解析:该题为细节题。题干问为什么Waterstones(水石书店)会把PRH的书退到相关的专柜。根据题干信息定位到第二段最后一句。这一段开头提到:这个问题(31题中提到的冲突)始于去年年底,当时企鹅兰登书屋(PRH)证实,它已经向水石书店推出了“非常高的”信用额度限制。(The problem began late last year, when Penguin Random House confirmed that it had introduced a credit limit with Waterstones “at a very significant level”.)。因此证明水石书店把书退回是为了应对PRH的信用额度限制。故选C。

33. what message does the spokesperson for Waterstones seem to convey?
A. Their customers remain loyal
B. The credit limit will be removed.
C. Their stock is underestimated.
D. The book market is rather slack
【33】A. Their customers remain loyal 解析:该题为细节题。根据题干spokesperson定位到第三段第一句。答案句在这一段倒数后两句,里面提到:“我们的商店现在重新开张了,我们希望恢复正常,我们将被允许适当地购物。当然,我们的商店非常繁忙,图书销售也非常好。我们5月份的月度图书销量超过了2018年以来的任何一个月。(Certainly, our shops are exceptionally busy and book sales are very strong. The sales for our May Books of the Month surpassed any month since 2018.”)。说明虽然水石书店收到信贷条款有所减少,但是图书销量非常好,印证了他们仍然有忠实的顾客。故选A。

34. what can be one consequence of the current dispute?
A. Sales of books by mid-list PRH writers fall off considerably.
B. Lesser-known PRH writers become the target of criticism
C. Waterstones staff hesitate to promote big-name author’s books.
D. Waterstones branches suffer a severe reduction in revenue.
【34】A. Sales of books by mid-list PRH writers fall off considerably. 解析:该题为细节题。根据题干当中的dispute定位到第四段。第二句提到知名PRH作者可能会受到一些影响,但那些通常依赖水石书店员工热情推广不太知名作家作品的中游作家,将会祈祷这场纠纷结束。(it’s those mid-list authors, who normally rely on Waterstones staff’s passion for promoting books by lesser-known writers, who will be praying for an end to the dispute.)。因此能印证居中作家的书籍销量大幅下滑,处于不利地位。故选A。

35. Which of the following statements best represents Lownie’s view?
A. Small publishers ought to stick together.
B. Big publishers will lose their dominance.
C. The publishing industry is having a hard time.
D. The merger of publishers is a worrying trend.
【35】D. The merger of publishers is a worrying trend. 解析:该题为细节题。根据题干当中的Lownie定位到倒数第二段。答案句在最后一段:我们将看到,这种多元化(=merger)是否是当前出版商需要足够大的规模来接纳所有来客的牺牲品。作者在担忧是否这种多元化会成为牺牲品(We shall see whether that plurality is a casualty of the current need among publishers to be big enough to take on all-comers.),因此证明出版商的多元化是一个令人担忧的趋势。故选D。

Text 4
36. According Paragraph 1, the careers of scientists can be determined by
A. how many citations their works contain.
B. how many times their papers are cited.
C. the prestige of the people they work with.
D. the status they have in scientific circles.
【36】B how many times their papers are cited 解析:该题为细节题,问科学家的职业生涯由什么决定,第一段末句提到:科学家的职业生涯及其机构的声誉取决于他们所发表论文的数量和声誉,但更重要的是,这些论文所吸引到的引用。(but even more so on the citations attracted by these papers)所以职业家的生涯最关键的因素是他们论文被引用的次数。

37. The support service consultancies tend to
A. recommend journals to their clients.
B. list citation patterns for their clients.
C. ask authors to include extra citations.
D. advise contributors to cite each other.
【37】C ask authors to include extra citations 解析:该题为细节题,问支持服务的咨询公司往往会,文中提到:提供支持服务的咨询公司有时会建议撰稿人在他们的文章和同事的文章中添加一些引文。(support service consultancies ... sometimes advise contributors to add a number of citations to their articles and the articles of colleagues)。include extra citations是add a number of citations的同义替换,故选C。

38. The function of the “milk cow” journals is to
A. boost citation counts for certain authors.
B. help scholars publish articles at low cost.
C. instruct first-time contributors in citation.
D. increase the readership of new journals.
【38】A boost citation counts for certain authors 解析:该题为细节题,问“奶牛”期刊的作用是什么,文中提到:这些期刊可以像奶牛一样,每期的每篇文章都可以引用一篇特定的论文或一系列论文。(These journals can act as milk cows where every single article in an issue may cite a specific paper or a series of papers)。每期的每篇文章都可以引用特定或者一系列论文,也就是为某些作者增加引用次数,故选A。

39. What can be learned about Scopus from the last two paragraphs?
A. It fosters competition among citation providers.
B. It has the capability to identify suspicious citations.
C. It hinders the growth of “international” journals.
D. It is established to prevent citation manipulation.
【39】B It has the capability to identify suspicious citations 解析:该题为推理细节题,问从最后两段中可以得知Scopus,文中提到:Scopus本身拥有检测这种弊端所需的所有数据。(Scopus itself has all the data necessary to detect this malpractice)。这里B项identify suspicious citations(发现可疑的引用)和原文detect this malpractice(发现这种不当行为)是同义替换,故选B。

40. What should an author do to deal with citation manipulators?
A. Take legal action.
B. Demand an apology.
C. Seek professional advice.
D. Reveal their misconduct.
【40】D Reveal their misconduct 解析:该题为细节题,问作者应该如何处理引文操纵者,文中提到:当编辑、审稿人或支持服务机构要求你添加不适当的参考文献时,不要强迫自己,并将请求报告给期刊。(when an editor, a reviewer, or a support service asks you to add inappropriate references, do not oblige and do report the request to the journal)。这里D项reveal their misconduct(揭露他们的不当行为)和原文do report the request to the journal(将请求报告给期刊)是同义替换,故选D。



首先排除AEH选项,其次,C、D中出现了Jackson 非全名,所以排除,F中出现Hayden 非全名排除, G the bill 表示前面出现过,排除, H perhaps most importantly, these images 可知前面出现过images,可排除,答案只能是B。


A中出现The team included…… F中出现In addition to the entourage of scientists, the team also……根据逻辑关系可知,F紧跟A后,所以答案是F


D 中出现Throughout the trip与E中的The well-documented Yellowstone journey……同义复现。以及D中出现images,H中出现these images。所以答案是D


He asked Jackson to print out large copies and distributed…… to each member of Congress. 讲到打印出大量得复印品分发给国会,让国会参与。


The bill proved largely popular and sailed through Congress with large majorities in favor. 表示保护最后通过国会的议案,进行立法。CG为捆绑选项。


Part C

【46】AI can also be used to identify the lifestyle choices of customers regarding their hobbies, favourite celebrities, and fashions to provide unique content in marketing messages put out through social media.



【47】Some believe that AI is negatively-impacting on the marketer's role by reducing creativity and removing jobs but they are aware that it is a way of reducing costs and creating new information.



【48】Algorithms used to stimulate human interactions are creating many of these concerns, especially no-one is quite sure what the outcomes of using AI to interact with customers will be.



【49】If customers are not willing to show data, AI will be starved of essential information and will not be able to function effectively or employ machine learning to improve its marketing content and communication.



【50】The non-intrusive delivery of the marketing messages in a way that is sensitive to the needs of the target customer is one of the critical challenges to the digital marketer.




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